Driven by emerging economies, global energy demand continues to grow, and global energy use is expected to grow by nearly 40% over the next 20 years. The Nigerian government has begun to use natural resources such as renewable energy as an alternative energy source to mitigate the effects of pollution and climate change.
Renewable energy is derived from natural resources such as sunshine, wind, rain, tides, waves and geothermal heat. Renewable energy technologies include solar energy, wind energy, hydro energy, and biofuels. Current estimates by the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) show that most of Africa’s 600 million people rely on inefficient, expensive energy to power their homes and businesses.
Relevant datas show that Nigeria, Kenya, Ethiopia and the Republic of South Africa are leaders of the renewable energy revolution. Especially in developing countries like Nigeria, the manufacturing process usually uses a lot of electricity, and solar energy will save considerable power costs.
Nigeria is located around the equator so it can use its abundant solar resources. There are also abundant wind energy resources in the states of Katsina, Zamfara and Sokoto. The average daily sunshine duration in Nigeria is 6.25 hours, about 3.5 hours in the northern coastal region of the country, and the average daily solar radiation per year is about 3.5 kW/m2. The average daily solar radiation in coastal areas, especially at the southern and northern borders, is 7.0 kW/m2.
Nigeria receives about 4909.212 kilowatts of solar energy per hour, equivalent to about 1.082 million tons of oil. This is 4,000 times the daily crude oil production and about 13,000 times the daily natural gas production. It is estimated that by 2050, Nigeria’s renewable energy will contribute to its 11%-13% economic growth.